English

Field Guide to California

Geology

skip-geology

Archaeology

skip-archaeology

Environment

skip-environment

Flora

skip-flora

Fauna

Invertebrates

Invertebrates intro

Sponges

Sponges intro

Clathrina clathrus (Clathrina clathrus)

Clathrina coriacea (Clathrina coriacea)

Leucosolenia (Leucosolenia variabilis)

Sycon ciliatum (Sycon ciliatum)

Red boring spong (Cliona celata)

Green boring sponge (Cliona viridis)

Sea orange sponge (Suberites ficus)

Tethya aurantium (Tethya aurantia)

Halichondria bowerbanki (Halichondria bowerbanki)

Haliclona (Haliclona cinerea)

Clathria (Clathria prolifera)

Ophlitaspongia (Ophlitaspongia pennata)

Myxilla incrustans (Myxilla incrustans)

Cloud sponge (Aphrocallistes vastus)

Sea anemones

Sea anemones intro

Aggregating anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima)

Giant green anemone (Anthopleura xanthogrammica)

Fish-eating anemone (Urticina piscivora)

Corals

Corals intro

Staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis)

Jellyfish

Jellyfish intro

Crystal jelly (Aequorea victoria)

Flower hat jelly (Olindias formosa)

Black sea nettle (Chrysaora achlyos)

Purple-striped jelly (Chrysaora colorata)

Worms

Worms intro

Giant feather duster worm (Eudistylia polymorpha)

Christmas tree worm (Spirobranchus giganteus)

T-headed worm (Scalibregma inflatum)

Fat innkeeper worm (Urechis unicinctus)

Hammerhead slug (Bipalium kewense)

Mollusks

Mollusks intro

Bivalves

Bivalves intro

Mussels

Mussels intro

California mussel (Mytilus californianus)

Ribbed mussel (Geukensia demissa)

Asian mussel (Musculista senhousia)

Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis)

Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis)

Oysters

Oysters intro

Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas)

Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida)

Scallops

Scallops intro

Rock scallop (Crassadoma gigantea)

Kelp scallop (Leptopecten latiauratus)

Clams

Clams intro

Japanese littleneck (Venerupis philippinarum)

Octopuses

Octopuses intro

Giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini)

California two-spot octopus (Octopus bimaculoides)

Squids

Squids intro

Hawaiian bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes)

Opalescent inshore squid (Doryteuthis opalescens)

Gastropods

Gastropods intro

Great keyhole limpet (Megathura crenulata)

Opalescent sea slug (Hermissenda crassicornis)

Hooded nudibranch (Melibe leonina)

California aglaja (Navanax inermis)

California sea hare (Aplysia californica)

Black sea hare (Aplysia vaccaria)

Eelgrass sea hare (Phyllaplysia taylori)

Kellet’s whelk (Kelletia kelletii)

California blue dorid (Felimare californiensis)

Californian cone (Californiconus californicus)

Chestnut cowrie (Neobernaya spadicea)

Doriopsilla albopunctata (Doriopsilla albopunctata)

Diaulula sandiegensis (Diaulula sandiegensis)

Sea lemon (Montereina nobilis)

Doris montereyensis (Doris montereyensis)

Fiona (Fiona pinnata)

Volcano limpet (Fissurella volcano)

Spanish shawl (Flabellina iodinea)

Okenia rosacea (Okenia rosacea)

Green abalone (Haliotis fulgens)

Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

White abalone (Haliotis sorenseni)

Garden snail (Cornu aspersum)

Milk snail (Otala lactea)

New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum)

Littorina scutulata (Littorina scutulata)

Owl limpet (Lottia gigantea)

Lottia limatula (Lottia limatula)

Emarginate dog winkle (Nucella emarginata)

Festive murex (Pteropurpura festiva)

Polycera atra (Polycera atra)

Speckled triopha (Triopha maculata)

California hornsnail (Cerithideopsis californica)

Janolus (Janolus barbarensi)

Decollate snail (Rumina decollata)

Norris’s top snail (Norrisia norrisii)

Black turban snail (Tegula funebralis)

Speckled tegula (Tegula gallina)

Tylodina (Tylodina fungina)

Scaled wormsnail (Thylacodes squamigerus)

Chitons

Chitons intro

Gumboot chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri)

Crustaceans

Crustaceans intro

Barnacles

Barnacles intro

Gooseneck barnacle (Pollicipes polymerus)

Crabs

Crabs intro

Red rock crab (Cancer productus)

Graceful rock crab (Metacarcinus gracilis)

Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister)

California rock crab (Romaleon antennarium)

Northern kelp crab (Pugettia productus)

Pachygrapsus crassipes (Pachygrapsus crassipes)

Pacific sand crab (Emerita analoga)

Pyromaia tuberculata (Pyromaia tuberculata)

Blueband hermit crab (Pagurus samuelis)

European green crab (Carcinus maenas)

Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis)

Yellow shore crab (Hemigrapsus oregonensis)

Crayfish

Crayfish intro

Shasta crayfish (Pacifastacus fortis)

Lobsters

Lobsters intro

California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus)

Prawns

Prawn intro

California spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros)

Shrimps

Shrimps intro

Conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservatio)

Vernal pool fairy shrimp (Branchinecta lynchi)

Riverside fairy shrimp (Streptocephalus woottoni)

Vernal pool tadpole shrimp (Lepidurus packardi)

California freshwater shrimp (Syncaris pacifica)

Woodlice and allies

Common pill-bug (Armadillidium vulgare)

Echinoderms

Echinoderms intro

Starfish

Starfish intro

Little six-rayed seastar (Leptasterias aequalis)

Six-rayed star (Leptasterias hexactis)

Rainbow star (Orthasterias koehleri)

Pink sea star (Pisaster brevispinus)

Purple sea star (Pisaster ochraceus)

Sunflower seastar (Pycnopodia helianthoides)

Northern henricia (Henricia sanguinolenta)

Sand star (Luidia foliolata)

Bat star (Patiria miniata)

Leather star (Dermasterias imbricata)

Arctic cookie star (Ceramaster arcticus)

Vermillion sea star (Mediaster aequalis)

Wrinkled star (Pteraster militaris)

Common sunstar (Crossaster papposus)

Morning sun star (Solaster dawsoni)

Purple sunstar (Solaster endeca)

Stimpson’s sun star (Solaster stimpsoni)

Sea urchins

Sea urchins intro

Eccentric sand dollar (Dendraster excentricus)

Purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus)

Centipedes

House centipede (Scutigera coleoptrata)

Arachnids

Spiders

Spiders intro

Grass spiders and allies

American grass spiders (Agelenopsis)

Folding trapdoor spiders

California turret spider (Antrodiaetus riversi)

Orb-weaver spiders

European garden spider (Araneus diadematus)

Jewel spider (Araneus gemmoides)

Marbled orb-weaver (Araneus marmoreus)

Silver Argiope (Argiope argentata)

Yellow garden spider (Argiope aurantia)

Banded garden spider (Argiope trifasciata)

Hentz’s orbweaver (Neoscona crucifera)

Woodlouse hunters

Woodlouse spider (Dysdera crocata)

Ground spiders

Eastern parson spider (Herpyllus ecclesiasticus)

Sheet weavers

Bowl and doily spider (Frontinella communis)

Wolf spiders

Carolina wolf spider (Hogna carolinensis)

Dwarf tarantulas

Megahexura (Megahexura fulva)

Cellar spiders

Marbled cellar spider (Holocnemus pluchei)

Cellar spider (Pholcus phalangioides)

Nursery web spiders

Pisaurina mira (Pisaurina mira)

Jumping spiders

Daring jumping spider (Phidippus audax)

Phidippus clarus (Phidippus clarus)

Red-backed jumping spider (Phidippus johnsoni)

Zebra spider (Salticus scenicus)

Recluse spiders

Brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa)

Long-jawed orb weavers

Orchard spider (Leucauge venusta)

Tarantulas

Western desert tarantula (Aphonopelma chalcodes)

Tangle-web spiders

Brown widow (Latrodectus geometricus)

Western black widow spider (Latrodectus hesperus)

Southern black widow (Latrodectus mactans)

Common house spider (Parasteatoda tepidariorum)

Cupboard spider (Steatoda grossa)

Triangulate cobweb spider (Steatoda triangulosa)

Crab spiders

Goldenrod crab spider (Misumena vatia)

Cribellate orb weavers

Feather-legged orbweaver (Uloborus glomosus)

False wolf spiders

Zoropsis spinimana (Zoropsis spinimana)

Scorpions

Giant desert hairy scorpion (Hadrurus arizonensis)

Whip scorpions

Giant vinegarroon (Mastigoproctus giganteus)

Pseudoscorpions

Ticks and allies

American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis)

Springtails

Anurida maritima (Anurida maritima)

Water springtail (Podura aquatica)

Insects

Insects intro

Larva

Pupa

Eyes and ocelli

Wings, halteres, and elytra

Alates

Grasshoppers

Grasshoppers intro

Differential grasshopper (Melanoplus differentialis)

Red-legged grasshopper (Melanoplus femurrubrum)

Pallid-winged grasshopper (Trimerotropis pallidipennis)

Crickets

Crickets intro

House cricket (Acheta domestica)

Fall field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus)

Jerusalem cricket (Stenopelmatus fuscus)

Katydids

Katydids intro

Mormon cricket (Anabrus simplex)

Beetles

Beetles intro

Jewel beetles

Sculptured pine borer (Chalcophora virginiensis)

Soldier beetles

Cantharis (Cantharis)

Ground beetles

Ohlone tiger beetle (Cicindela ohlone)

Delta green ground beetle (Elaphrus viridis)

Megacephala carolina (Megacephala carolina)

Longhorn beetles

Valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus)

Ivory-marked beetle (Eburia quadrigeminata)

White-spotted sawyer (Monochamus scutellatus)

Red-headed ash borer (Neoclytus acuminatus)

Banded alder borer (Rosalia funebris)

Leaf beetles

Golden tortoise beetle (Charidotella sexpunctata)

Cobalt milkweed beetle (Chrysochus cobaltinus)

Spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata)

Ladybugs

Seven-spot ladybug (Coccinella septempunctata)

Mealybug ladybird (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri)

Harlequin ladybird (Harmonia axyridis)

Convergent lady beetle (Hippodamia convergens)

Snout beetles

Boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

Nut weevil (Curculio nucum)

Black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus)

Skin beetles

Varied carpet beetle (Anthrenus verbasci)

Blister beetles

Meloe (Meloe impressus)

Scarabs

May beetles (Phyllophaga)

Ten-lined June beetle (Polyphylla decemlineata)

Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica)

Large carrion beetles

Burying beetles (Nicrophorus)

Rove beetles

Devil’s coach horse beetle (Ocypus olens)

Silverfish

Silverfish and firebrats intro

Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina)

Firebrat (Thermobia domestica)

Alderflies

Chauliodes pectinicornis (Chauliodes pectinicornis)

Eastern dobsonfly (Corydalus cornutus)

Bugs

Bugs intro

Aphids

Aphids (Aphis)

Giant water bugs

Giant water bug (Lethocerus americanus)

Leafhopper

Candy-striped leafhopper (Graphocephala coccinea)

Bed bugs

Bed bug (Cimex lectularius)

Leaf-footed bugs

Orange-tipped leaf-footed bug (Anasa tristis)

Western conifer seed bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis)

Milkweed bugs

Large milkweed bug (Oncopeltus fasciatus)

Treehoppers

Buffalo treehopper (Stictocephala bisonia)

Shield bugs

Twice-stabbed stink bug (Cosmopepla lintneriana)

Brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys)

Assassin bugs and allies

Masked hunter (Reduvius personatus)

Dragonflies

Dragonflies intro

Blue-eyed darner (Aeshna multicolor)

Green darner (Anax junius)

Pacific spiketail (Cordulegaster dorsalis)

Western pondhawk (Erythemis collocata)

Eastern pondhawk (Erythemis simplicicollis)

Widow skimmer (Libellula luctuosa)

Flame skimmer (Libellula saturata)

Blue dasher (Pachydiplax longipennis)

Common whitetail (Plathemis lydia)

Variegated meadowhawk (Sympetrum corruptum)

Black saddlebags (Tramea lacerata)

Damselflies

Damselflies intro

American rubyspot (Hetaerina americana)

Familiar bluet (Enallagma civile)

Spotted spreadwing (Lestes congener)

Ants, bees, and wasps

Ants, bees, and wasps intro

Ants

Crematogaster coarctata (Crematogaster coarctata)

Formica fusca (Formica fusca)

Argentine ant (Linepithema humile)

Little black ant (Monomorium minimum)

Prenolepis imparis (Prenolepis imparis)

Thief ant (Solenopsis molesta)

Odorous house ant (Tapinoma sessile)

Pavement ant (Tetramorium caespitum)

Bees

Western honey bee (Apis mellifera)

Common eastern bumblebee (Bombus impatiens)

Western bumblebee (Bombus occidentalis)

American bumblebee (Bombus pensylvanicus)

Orange-belted bumblebee (Bombus ternarius)

Yellow-faced bumblebee (Bombus vosnesenskii)

California carpenter bee (Xylocopa californica)

European wool carder bee (Anthidium manicatum)

Wasps

Cuckoo wasps (Chrysis)

Ichneumon wasps (Megarhyssa)

Thistledown velvet ant (Dasymutilla gloriosa)

Red velvet ant (Dasymutilla occidentalis)

Blue-winged wasp (Scolia dubia)

Giant woodwasp (Urocerus gigas)

Blue mud dauber (Chalybion californicum)

Black and yellow mud dauber (Sceliphron caementarium)

Great golden digger wasp (Sphex ichneumoneus)

Bald-faced hornet (Dolichovespula maculata)

Monobia quadridens (Monobia quadridens)

European paper wasp (Polistes dominula)

Western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica)

Yellow jackets (Vespula)

Mosquitoes and flies

Mosquitoes and flies intro

Large bee-fly (Bombylius major)

Midges (Chironomus)

Delhi Sands flower-loving fly (Rhaphiomidas terminatus abdominalis)

Flesh flies (Sarcophaga)

Scaeva pyrastri (Scaeva pyrastri)

Toxomerus geminatus (Toxomerus geminatus)

Adejeania vexatrix (Adejeania vexatrix)

Cockroaches

German cockroach (Blattella germanica)

American cockroach (Periplaneta americana)

Earwigs

Ringlegged earwig (Euborellia annulipes)

Common earwig (Forficula auricularia)

Moths

Moths intro

Many-Spotted tiger moth (Hypercompe permaculata)

Edwards’ Glassy-wing (Pseudohemihyalea edwardsii)

Isabella tiger moth (Pyrrharctia isabella)

Forage looper (Caenurgina erechtea)

Forest tent caterpillar moth (Malacosoma disstria)

American dun-bar moth (Cosmia calami)

Lunate zale (Zale lunata)

California oakworm (Phryganidia californica)

Himmelman’s plume moth (Geina tenuidactyla)

Hellinsia homodactylus (Hellinsia homodactylus)

Luna moth (Actias luna)

Polyphemus moth (Antheraea polyphemus)

Achemon sphinx (Eumorpha achemon)

Vine sphinx (Eumorpha vitis)

White-lined sphinx (Hyles lineata)

Rustic sphinx (Manduca rustica)

Tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta)

Big poplar sphinx (Pachysphinx occidentalis)

Small-eyed sphinx (Paonias myops)

Tersa sphinx (Xylophanes tersa)

Butterflies

Butterflies intro

Skipper butterflies

Skipper butterflies intro

Funereal duskywing (Erynnis funeralis)

Propertius duskywing (Erynnis propertius)

Northern white-skipper (Heliopetes ericetorum)

Silver-spotted skipper (Hesperia comma)

Juba skipper (Hesperia juba)

Fiery skipper (Hylephila phyleus)

Eufala skipper (Lerodea eufala)

Woodland skipper (Ochlodes sylvanoides)

Umber skipper (Poanes melane)

Sandhill skipper (Polites sabuleti)

White checkered skipper (Pyrgus albescens)

Common checkered-skipper (Pyrgus communis)

Laguna Mountains skipper (Pyrgus ruralis lagunae)

Long-tailed skipper (Urbanus proteus)

Gossamer-winged butterflies

Gossamer-winged butterflies intro

Boisduval’s blue (Aricia icarioides)

Mission blue butterfly (Aricia icarioides missionensis)

Great purple hairstreak (Atlides halesus)

Western pygmy blue (Brephidium exilis)

Brown elfin (Callophrys augustinus)

Coastal green hairstreak (Callophrys dumetorum)

Western pine elfin (Callophrys eryphon)

San Bruno elfin butterfly (Callophrys mossii bayensis)

Holly blue (Celastrina argiolus)

Western tailed-blue (Cupido amyntula)

Eastern tailed-blue (Cupido comyntas)

El Segundo blue butterfly (Euphilotes battoides allyni)

Smith’s blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi)

Silvery blue (Glaucopsyche lygdamus)

Palos Verdes blue (Glaucopsyche lygdamus palosverdesensis)

Reakirt’s blue (Hemiargus isola)

Marine blue (Leptotes marina)

Tailed copper (Lycaena arota)

Purplish copper (Lycaena helloides)

Acmon blue (Plebejus acmon)

California hairstreak (Satyrium californica)

Hedgerow hairstreak (Satyrium saepium)

Gray hairstreak (Strymon melinus)

Four-footed butterflies

Four-footed butterflies intro

Bredow’s sister (Adelpha bredowii)

California sister (Adelpha californica)

Gulf fritillary (Agraulis vanillae)

Hackberry emperor (Asterocampa celtis)

Pacific fritillary (Boloria epithore)

Great Basin wood-nymph (Cercyonis sthenele)

Sagebrush checkerspot (Chlosyne acastus)

California patch (Chlosyne californica)

Gabb’s checkerspot (Chlosyne gabbii)

Hoffmann’s checkerspot (Chlosyne hoffmanni)

Bordered patch (Chlosyne lacinia)

Leanira checkerspot (Chlosyne leanira)

Northern checkerspot (Chlosyne palla)

Rockslide checkerspot (Chlosyne whitneyi)

Large heath (Coenonympha tullia)

Queen butterfly (Danaus gilippus)

Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)

Variable checkerspot (Euphydryas chalcedona)

Edith’s checkerspot (Euphydryas editha)

Bay checkerspot (Euphydryas editha bayensis)

Quino checkerspot (Euphydryas editha quino)

Variegated fritillary (Euptoieta claudia)

Mexican fritillary (Euptoieta hegesia)

Zebra longwing (Heliconius charithonia)

Common buckeye (Junonia coenia)

American snout butterfly (Libytheana carinenta)

Viceroy (Limenitis archippus)

Lorquin’s admiral (Limenitis lorquini)

Weidemeyer’s admiral (Limenitis weidemeyerii)

Mourning cloak (Nymphalis antiopa)

California tortoiseshell (Nymphalis californica)

Milbert’s tortoiseshell (Nymphalis milberti)

Compton tortoiseshell (Nymphalis vaualbum)

Northern crescent (Phyciodes cocyta)

Mylitta crescent (Phyciodes mylitta)

Orseis crescentspot (Phyciodes orseis)

Phaon crescent (Phyciodes phaon)

Field crescent (Phyciodes pulchella)

Pearl crescent (Phyciodes tharos)

Green comma (Polygonia faunus)

Hoary comma (Polygonia gracilis)

Oreas comma (Polygonia oreas)

Gray comma (Polygonia progne)

Satyr comma (Polygonia satyrus)

Unsilvered fritillary (Speyeria adiaste)

Callippe fritillary (Speyeria callippe)

Callippe silverspot butterfly (Speyeria callippe callippe)

Coronis fritillary (Speyeria coronis)

Great spangled fritillary (Speyeria cybele)

Great Basin fritillary (Speyeria egleis)

Northwestern fritillary (Speyeria hesperis)

Hydaspe fritillary (Speyeria hydaspe)

Mormon fritillary (Speyeria mormonia)

Zerene fritillary (Speyeria zerene)

Myrtle’s silverspot butterfly (Speyeria zerene behrensii)

Oregon silverspot (Speyeria zerene hippolyta)

West Coast lady (Vanessa annabella)

Red admiral (Vanessa atalanta)

Painted lady (Vanessa cardui)

American painted lady (Vanessa virginiensis)

Swallowtail butterflies

Swallowtail butterflies intro

Blue swallowtail (Battus philenor)

Gold rim swallowtail (Battus polydamas)

Giant swallowtail (Papilio cresphontes)

Pale swallowtail (Papilio eurymedon)

Indra swallowtail (Papilio indra)

Old World swallowtail (Papilio machaon)

Two-tailed swallowtai (Papilio multicaudata)

Black swallowtail (Papilio polyxenes)

Western tiger swallowtail (Papilio rutulus)

Anise swallowtail (Papilio zelicaon)

Parnassius clodius (Parnassius clodius)

Rocky Mountain parnassian (Parnassius smintheus)

Whites and sulphurs

Whites and sulphurs intro

Sara orangetip (Anthocharis sara)

Orange sulphur (Colias eurytheme)

Large marble (Euchloe ausonides)

Sleepy orange (Eurema nicippe)

Dainty sulphur (Nathalis iole)

Cloudless sulphur (Phoebis sennae)

Margined white (Pieris marginalis)

Green-veined white (Pieris napi)

Small white (Pieris rapae)

Checkered white (Pontia protodice)

California dogface butterfly (Zerene eurydice)

Metalmark butterflies

Metalmark butterflies intro

Mormon metalmark (Apodemia mormo)

Lange’s metalmark butterfly (Apodemia mormo langei)

Fatal metalmark (Calephelis nemesis)

Mantises

Mantises intro

European mantis (Mantis religiosa)

Stick insects

Common walkingstick (Diapheromera femorata)

Vertebrates

Vertebrates intro

Fish

Fish intro

Sturgeons and allies

White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus)

Eels

California moray (Gymnothorax mordax)

Slender snipe eel (Nemichthys scolopaceus)

Hagfish

Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii)

Silversides

California grunion (Leuresthes tenuis)

Inland silverside (Menidia beryllina)

Toadfish

Plainfin midshipman (Porichthys notatus)

Herrings and allies

Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

Threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense)

South American pilchard (Sardinops sagax)

Californian anchovy (Engraulis mordax)

Carps, minnows, and allies

Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

Common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Golden shiner (Notemigonus crysoleucas)

Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus)

Toothcarps

Rainwater killifish (Lucania parva)

Western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)

Cods and allies

North Pacific hake (Merluccius productus)

Sticklebacks

Three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Smelts and allies

Surf smelt (Hypomesus pretiosus)

Delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus)

Salmons and allies

Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Golden trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita)

Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

Catfish

Black bullhead (Ameiurus melas)

Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus)

Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

White catfish (Ameiurus catus)

Wolffish

Wolf eel (Anarrhichthys ocellatus)

Jacks and allies

Pacific jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus)

Sunfish

Green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus)

Pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus)

Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus)

Redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus)

Smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu)

Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)

Black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus)

Clinids

Giant kelpfish (Heterostichus rostratus)

Surfperches

Barred surfperch (Amphistichus argenteus)

Shiner perch (Cymatogaster aggregata)

Black surfperch (Embiotoca jacksoni)

Tule perch (Hysterocarpus traskii)

Gobies

Yellowfin goby (Acanthogobius flavimanus)

Tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi)

Longjaw mudsucker (Gillichthys mirabilis)

Lythrypnus dalli (Lythrypnus dalli)

Shimofuri goby (Tridentiger bifasciatus)

Chameleon goby (Tridentiger trigonocephalus)

Sea chubs

Opaleye (Girella nigricans)

Temperate basses

Striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

Wreckfish

Giant sea bass (Stereolepis gigas)

Damselfish and clownfish

Garibaldi (Hypsypops rubicundus)

Drums

White seabass (Atractoscion nobilis)

Mackerels and tunas

Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus)

Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis)

Sea basses and groupers

Kelp bass (Paralabrax clathratus)

Wrasses

California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher)

Flatfish

Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus)

Speckled sanddab (Citharichthys stigmaeus)

California halibut (Paralichthys californicus)

Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis)

English sole (Parophrys vetulus)

Starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus)

Mail-cheeked fish

Coastrange sculpin (Cottus aleuticus)

Prickly sculpin (Cottus asper)

Kelp greenling (Hexagrammos decagrammus)

California scorpionfish (Scorpaena guttata)

Brown rockfish (Sebastes auriculatus)

Cabezon (Scorpaenichthys marmoratus)

Lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus)

Seahorses and allies

Pacific seahorse (Hippocampus ingens)

Bay pipefish (Syngnathus leptorhynchus)

Molas and allies

Common mola (Mola mola)

Sharks and allies

Sharks

Common thresher (Alopias vulpinus)

Galapagos shark (Carcharhinus galapagensis)

Oceanic whitetip shark (Carcharhinus longimanus)

Blue shark (Prionace glauca)

Basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus)

Horn shark (Heterodontus francisci)

Bluntnose sixgill shark (Hexanchus griseus)

Broadnose sevengill shark (Notorynchus cepedianus)

Great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias)

Shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus)

Brown catshark (Apristurus brunneus)

Swellshark (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum)

Filetail catshark (Parmaturus xaniurus)

School shark (Galeorhinus galeus)

Leopard shark (Triakis semifasciata)

Spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias)

Spotted ratfish (Hydrolagus colliei)

Pacific angelshark (Squatina californica)

Rays

Southern stingray (Dasyatis americana)

Bat ray (Myliobatis californica)

Round stingray (Urobatis halleri)

Big skate (Raja binoculata)

Shovelnose guitarfish (Rhinobatos productus)

Pacific electric ray (Tetronarce californica)

Sea squirts

Clavelina (Clavelina huntsmani)

Pacific transparent sea squirt (Ciona savignyi)

Sea pork (Aplidium californicum)

Elephant ear tunicate (Polyclinum planum)

Star ascidian (Botryllus schlosseri)

Stalked tunicate (Styela montereyensis)

Amphibians

Amphibians intro

Frogs

True frogs

Northern red-legged frog (Rana aurora)

Rio Grande leopard frog (Rana berlandieri)

Foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii)

Cascades frog (Rana cascadae)

American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana)

California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

Columbia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris)

Mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa)

Northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens)

Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa)

Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog (Rana sierrae)

Southern leopard frog (Rana sphenocephala)

Lowland leopard frog (Rana yavapaiensis)

Tailed frogs

Western tailed frog (Ascaphus truei)

Tree frogs

California tree frog (Pseudacris cadaverina)

Baja California chorus frog (Pseudacris hypochondriaca)

Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla)

Sierran chorus frog (Pseudacris sierra)

Tongueless frogs

African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)

Toads

True toads

Sonoran desert toad (Bufo alvarius)

Western toad (Bufo boreas)

Arroyo toad (Bufo californicus)

Yosemite toad (Bufo canorus)

Great Plains toad (Bufo cognatus)

Black toad (Bufo exsul)

Red-spotted toad (Bufo punctatus)

Woodhouse’s toad (Bufo woodhousii)

Spadefoot toads

Couch’s spadefoot toad (Scaphiopus couchii)

Western spadefoot toad (Spea hammondii)

Great Basin spadefoot (Spea intermontana)

Salamanders

True salamanders

Rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa)

Red-bellied newt (Taricha rivularis)

Sierra newt (Taricha sierrae)

California newt (Taricha torosa)

Mole salamanders

California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense)

Long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum)

Barred tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium)

Northwestern salamander (Amybstoma gracile)

Pacific giant salamanders

California giant salamander (Dicamptodon ensatus)

Coastal giant salamander (Dicamptodon tenebrosus)

Lungless salamanders

Clouded salamander (Aneides ferreus)

Black salamander (Aneides flavipunctatus)

Arboreal salamander (Aneides lugubris)

California slender salamander (Batrachoseps attenuatus)

San Gabriel slender salamander (Batrachoseps gabrieli)

Gabilan Mountains slender salamander (Batrachoseps gavilanensis)

Sequoia slender salamander (Batrachoseps kawia)

Santa Lucia Mountains slender salamander (Batrachoseps luciae)

Garden slender salamander (Batrachoseps major)

Black-bellied slender salamander (Batrachoseps nigriventris)

Ensatina (Ensatina eschscholtzii)

Mount Lyell salamander (Hydromantes platycephalus)

Dunn’s salamander (Plethodon dunni)

Del Norte salamander (Plethodon elongatus)

Torrent salamanders

Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus)

Reptiles

Reptiles intro

Lizards

Lizards intro

Northern alligator lizard (Elgaria coerulea)

Southern alligator lizard (Elgaria multicarinata)

California legless lizard (Anniella pulchra)

Italian wall lizard (Podarcis siculus)

Zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides)

Banded rock lizard (Petrosaurus mearnsi)

Coast horned lizard (Phrynosoma blainvilli)

Pygmy short-horned lizard (Phrynosoma douglasii)

Flat-tail horned lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii)

Desert horned lizard (Phrynosoma platyrhinos)

Sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus graciosus)

Desert spiny lizard (Sceloporus magister)

Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

Granite spiny lizard (Sceloporus orcutti)

Yellow-backed spiny lizard (Sceloporus uniformis)

Coachella Valley fringe-toed lizard (Uma inornata)

Mojave fringe-toed lizard (Uma scoparia)

Long-tailed brush lizard (Urosaurus graciosus)

Baja California brush lizard (Urosaurus nigricaudus)

Ornate tree lizard (Urosaurus ornatus)

Common side-blotched lizard (Uta stansburiana)

Orange-throated whiptail (Aspidoscelis hyperythra)

Western whiptail (Aspidoscelis tigris)

Granite night lizard (Xantusia henshawi)

Island night lizard (Xantusia riversiana)

Desert night lizard (Xantusia vigilis)

Great Basin collared lizard (Crotaphytus bicinctores)

Baja California collared lizard (Crotaphytus vestigium)

Cope’s leopard lizard (Gambelia copeii)

Long-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia wislizenii)

Skinks

Skinks intro

Gilbert’s skink (Plestiodon gilberti)

Western skink (Plestiodon skiltonianus)

Geckos

Geckos intro

Western banded gecko (Coleonyx variegatus)

Mediterranean house gecko (Hemidactylus turcicus)

Snakes

Snakes intro

Diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus ruber)

California kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae)

California mountain kingsnake (Lampropeltis zonata)

Gopher snake (Pituophis catenifer)

Aquatic garter snake (Thamnophis atratus)

Sierra garter snake (Thamnophis couchii)

Western terrestrial garter snake (Thamnophis elegans)

Northwestern garter snake (Thamnophis ordinoides)

Rubber boa (Charina bottae)

Rosy boa (Lichanura trivirgata)

Iguanas

Desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis)

Common chuckwalla (Sauromalus ater)

Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum)

Turtles

Turtles intro

Sea turtles

Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta)

Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas)

Olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea)

Leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea)

Common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina)

Pond turtles

Western pond turtle (Actinemys marmorata)

Painted turtle (Chrysemys picta)

Red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta)

Sonora mud turtle (Kinosternon sonoriense)

Spiny softshell turtle (Apalone spinifera)

Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)

Birds

Birds intro

Sexual dimorphism

Ducks, geese, and swans

Ducks intro

Wood duck (Aix sponsa)

Northern pintail (Anas acuta)

American wigeon (Anas americana)

Northern shoveler (Anas clypeata)

Eurasian teal (Anas crecca)

Cinnamon teal (Anas cyanoptera)

Blue-winged teal (Anas discors)

Falcated duck (Anas falcata)

Baikal teal (Anas formosa)

Eurasian wigeon (Anas penelope)

Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)

Garganey (Anas querquedula)

American black duck (Anas rubripes)

Gadwall (Anas strepera)

Greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons)

Lesser scaup (Aythya affinis)

Redhead (Aythya americana)

Ring-necked duck (Aythya collaris)

Common pochard (Aythya ferina)

Tufted duck (Aythya fuligula)

Greater scaup (Aythya marila)

Canvasback (Aythya valisineria)

Brant goose (Branta bernicla)

Canada goose (Branta canadensis)

Cackling goose (Branta hutchinsii)

Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola)

Common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula)

Barrow’s goldeneye (Bucephala islandica)

Snow goose (Chen caerulescens)

Emperor goose (Chen canagica)

Ross’s goose (Chen rossii)

Long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis)

Trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator)

Tundra swan (Cygnus columbianus)

Whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus)

Black-bellied whistling duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis)

Fulvous whistling duck (Dendrocygna bicolor)

Harlequin duck (Histrionicus histrionicus)

Hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus)

Black scoter (Melanitta americana)

Velvet scoter (Melanitta fusca)

Surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata)

Smew (Mergellus albellus)

Common merganser (Mergus merganser)

Red-breasted merganser (Mergus serrator)

Ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis)

Steller’s eider (Polysticta stelleri)

Common eider (Somateria mollissima)

King eider (Somateria spectabilis)

Swifts

White-throated swift (Aeronautes saxatalis)

Chimney swift (Chaetura pelagica)

Vaux’s swift (Chaetura vauxi)

American black swift (Cypseloides niger)

White-collared swift (Streptoprocne zonaris)

Hummingbirds

Violet-crowned hummingbird (Amazilia violiceps)

Black-chinned hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri)

Ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris)

Anna’s hummingbird (Calypte anna)

Costa’s hummingbird (Calypte costae)

Green violetear (Colibri thalassinus)

Broad-billed hummingbird (Cynanthus latirostris)

Magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens)

Xantus’s hummingbird (Hylocharis xantusii)

Blue-throated mountaingem (Lampornis clemenciae)

Calliope hummingbird (Selasphorus calliope)

Broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus)

Rufous hummingbird (Selasphorus rufus)

Allen’s hummingbird (Selasphorus sasin)

Nightjars and nighthawks

Chuck-will’s-widow (Antrostomus carolinensis)

Eastern whip-poor-will (Antrostomus vociferus)

Lesser nighthawk (Chordeiles acutipennis)

Common nighthawk (Chordeiles minor)

Common poorwill (Phalaenoptilus nuttallii)

Vultures

Turkey vulture (Cathartes aura)

Black vulture (Coragyps atratus)

California condor (Gymnogyps californianus)

Auks and allies

Crested auklet (Aethia cristatella)

Parakeet auklet (Aethia psittacula)

Least auklet (Aethia pusilla)

Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris)

Marbled murrelet (Brachyramphus marmoratus)

Long-billed murrelet (Brachyramphus perdix)

Pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba)

Rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata)

Tufted puffin (Fratercula cirrhata)

Horned puffin (Fratercula corniculata)

Cassin’s auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus)

Ancient murrelet (Synthliboramphus antiquus)

Scripps’s murrelet (Synthliboramphus scrippsi)

Common murre (Uria aalge)

Thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia)

Plovers and allies

Greater sand plover (Charadrius leschenaultii)

Piping plover (Charadrius melodus)

Lesser sand plover (Charadrius mongolus)

Mountain plover (Charadrius montanus)

Eurasian dotterel (Charadrius morinellus)

Snowy plover (Charadrius nivosus)

Semipalmated plover (Charadrius semipalmatus)

Killdeer (Charadrius vociferus)

Wilson’s plover (Charadrius wilsonia)

American golden plover (Pluvialis dominica)

Pacific golden plover (Pluvialis fulva)

Gray plover (Pluvialis squatarola)

Oystercatchers

Black oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani)

American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus)

Gulls

Gulls intro

Bonaparte’s gull (Chroicocephalus philadelphia)

Black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus)

Swallow-tailed gull (Creagrus furcatus)

Little gull (Hydrocoloeus minutus)

European herring gull (Larus argentatus)

Belcher’s gull (Larus belcheri)

California gull (Larus californicus)

Common gull (Larus canus)

Black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris)

Ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis)

Lesser black-backed gull (Larus fuscus)

Glaucous-winged gull (Larus glaucescens)

Iceland gull (Larus glaucoides)

Heermann’s gull (Larus heermanni)

Glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus)

Yellow-footed gull (Larus livens)

Western gull (Larus occidentalis)

Slaty-backed gull (Larus schistisagus)

Thayer’s gull (Larus thayeri)

Laughing gull (Leucophaeus atricilla)

Franklin’s gull (Leucophaeus pipixcan)

Ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea)

Ross’s gull (Rhodostethia rosea)

Red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris)

Black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla)

Sabine’s gull (Xema sabini)

Avocets and stilts

Black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus)

American avocet (Recurvirostra americana)

Skimmers

Black skimmer (Rynchops niger)

Sandpipers and allies

Spotted sandpiper (Actitis macularia)

Ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres)

Black turnstone (Arenaria melanocephala)

Upland sandpiper (Bartramia longicauda)

Sharp-tailed sandpiper (Calidris acuminata)

Sanderling (Calidris alba)

Dunlin (Calidris alpina)

Baird’s sandpiper (Calidris bairdii)

Red knot (Calidris canutus)

Curlew sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea)

White-rumped sandpiper (Calidris fuscicollis)

Stilt sandpiper (Calidris himantopus)

Western sandpiper (Calidris mauri)

Pectoral sandpiper (Calidris melanotos)

Little stint (Calidris minuta)

Least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla)

Rock sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis)

Ruff (Calidris pugnax)

Semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla)

Red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis)

Long-toed stint (Calidris subminuta)

Buff-breasted sandpiper (Calidris subruficollis)

Surfbird (Calidris virgata)

Wilson’s snipe (Gallinago delicata)

Short-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus griseus)

Long-billed dowitcher (Limnodromus scolopaceus)

Marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa)

Hudsonian godwit (Limosa haemastica)

Bar-tailed godwit (Limosa lapponica)

Jack snipe (Lymnocryptes minimus)

Long-billed curlew (Numenius americanus)

Little curlew (Numenius minutus)

Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus)

Bristle-thighed curlew (Numenius tahitiensis)

Red phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius)

Red-necked phalarope (Phalaropus lobatus)

Wilson’s phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor)

American woodcock (Scolopax minor)

Gray-tailed tattler (Tringa brevipes)

Spotted redshank (Tringa erythropus)

Lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes)

Wandering tattler (Tringa incana)

Greater yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca)

Common greenshank (Tringa nebularia)

Willet (Tringa semipalmata)

Solitary sandpiper (Tringa solitaria)

Terek sandpiper (Xenus cinereus)

Skuas and jaegers

Long-tailed jaeger (Stercorarius longicaudus)

South polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki)

Parasitic jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus)

Pomarine skua (Stercorarius pomarinus)

Terns

Terns intro

White-winged tern (Chlidonias leucopterus)

Black tern (Chlidonias niger)

Gull-billed tern (Gelochelidon nilotica)

Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia)

Bridled tern (Onychoprion anaethetus)

Sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscata)

Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri)

Common tern (Sterna hirundo)

Arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea)

Least tern (Sternula antillarum)

Elegant tern (Thalasseus elegans)

Royal tern (Thalasseus maxima)

Sandwich tern (Thalasseus sandvicensis)

Storks

Wood stork (Mycteria americana)

Pigeons and doves

Rock dove (Columba livia)

Inca dove (Columbina inca)

Common ground dove (Columbina passerina)

Ruddy ground dove (Columbina talpacoti)

Band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata)

Spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis)

Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto)

Oriental turtle dove (Streptopelia orientalis)

White-winged dove (Zenaida asiatica)

Mourning dove (Zenaida macroura)

Water kingfishers

Belted kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon)

Cuckoos and allies

Yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus)

Black-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus erythropthalmus)

Groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris)

Greater roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus)

Falcons and allies

Hawks, eagles, and kites

Cooper’s hawk (Accipiter cooperii)

Northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis)

Sharp-shinned hawk (Accipiter striatus)

Golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos)

Zone-tailed hawk (Buteo albonotatus)

Red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)

Rough-legged buzzard (Buteo lagopus)

Red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus)

Broad-winged hawk (Buteo platypterus)

Ferruginous hawk (Buteo regalis)

Swainson’s hawk (Buteo swainsoni)

Common black hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus)

Hen harrier (Circus cyaneus)

White-tailed kite (Elanus leucurus)

Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)

Mississippi kite (Ictinia mississippiensis)

Harris’s hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus)

Falcons and caracaras

Northern crested caracara (Caracara cheriway)

Merlin (Falco columbarius)

Prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus)

Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus)

Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus)

American kestrel (Falco sparverius)

Common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus)

Osprey (Pandion haliaetus)

Fowl

California quail (Callipepla californica)

Gambel’s quail (Callipepla gambelii)

Mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus)

Chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar)

Ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus)

Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

Sooty grouse (Dendragapus fuliginosus)

White-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus)

Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

Common pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)

Sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus)

Loons

Yellow-billed loon (Gavia adamsii)

Black-throated loon (Gavia arctica)

Great northern loon (Gavia immer)

Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica)

Red-throated loon (Gavia stellata)

Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis)

Rails and allies

Yellow rail (Coturnicops noveboracensis)

American coot (Fulica americana)

Common gallinule (Gallinula galeata)

Black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis)

American purple gallinule (Porphyrio martinica)

Sora (Porzana carolina)

Virginia rail (Rallus limicola)

Ridgway’s rail (Rallus obsoletus)

Perching birds

American bushtit (Psaltriparus minimus)

Larks

Larks intro

Eurasian skylark (Alauda arvensis)

Horned lark (Eremophila alpestris)

Waxwings

Cedar waxwing (Bombycilla cedrorum)

Bohemian waxwing (Bombycilla garrulus)

Longspurs and snow buntings

Lapland longspur (Calcarius lapponicus)

McCown’s longspur (Calcarius mccownii)

Chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus)

Smith’s longspur (Calcarius pictus)

Little bunting (Emberiza pusilla)

Rustic bunting (Emberiza rustica)

Snow bunting (Plectrophenax nivalis)

Cardinals and allies

Northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis)

Pyrrhuloxia (Cardinalis sinuatus)

Lazuli bunting (Passerina amoena)

Blue grosbeak (Passerina caerulea)

Painted bunting (Passerina ciris)

Indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea)

Varied bunting (Passerina versicolor)

Rose-breasted grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovicianus)

Black-headed grosbeak (Pheucticus melanocephalus)

Hepatic tanager (Piranga flava)

Western tanager (Piranga ludoviciana)

Scarlet tanager (Piranga olivacea)

Summer tanager (Piranga rubra)

Dickcissel (Spiza americana)

Brown creeper (Certhia americana)

American dipper (Cinclus mexicanus)

Crows and allies

Western scrub jay (Aphelocoma californica)

Island scrub jay (Aphelocoma insularis)

Black-throated magpie-jay (Calocitta colliei)

American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)

Common raven (Corvus corax)

Blue jay (Cyanocitta cristata)

Steller’s jay (Cyanocitta stelleri)

Pinyon jay (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus)

Clark’s nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana)

Gray jay (Perisoreus canadensis)

Black-billed magpie (Pica hudsonia)

Yellow-billed magpie (Pica nuttalli)

Sparrows and allies

Rufous-crowned sparrow (Aimophila ruficeps)

Baird’s sparrow (Ammodramus bairdii)

Le Conte’s sparrow (Ammodramus leconteii)

Nelson’s sparrow (Ammodramus nelsoni)

Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum)

Black-throated sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata)

Bell’s sparrow (Artemisiospiza belli)

Lark bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys)

Lark sparrow (Chondestes grammacus)

Dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis)

Swamp sparrow (Melospiza georgiana)

Lincoln’s sparrow (Melospiza lincolnii)

Song sparrow (Melospiza melodia)

Abert’s towhee (Melozone aberti)

California towhee (Melozone crissalis)

Fox sparrow (Passerella iliaca)

Cassin’s sparrow (Peucaea cassinii)

Green-tailed towhee (Pipilo chlorurus)

Spotted towhee (Pipilo maculatus)

Vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus)

American tree sparrow (Spizella arborea)

Black-chinned sparrow (Spizella atrogularis)

Brewer’s sparrow (Spizella breweri)

Clay-colored sparrow (Spizella pallida)

Chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina)

Field sparrow (Spizella pusilla)

White-throated sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis)

Golden-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia atricapilla)

White-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys)

Harris’s sparrow (Zonotrichia querula)

True finches

Common redpoll (Acanthis flammea)

Evening grosbeak (Coccothraustes vespertinus)

Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla)

Cassin’s finch (Haemorhous cassinii)

House finch (Haemorhous mexicanus)

Purple finch (Haemorhous purpureus)

Black rosy finch (Leucosticte atrata)

Gray-crowned rosy finch (Leucosticte tephrocotis)

Red crossbill (Loxia curvirostra)

Two-barred crossbill (Loxia leucoptera)

Pine grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator)

Lawrence’s goldfinch (Spinus lawrencei)

Pine siskin (Spinus pinus)

Lesser goldfinch (Spinus psaltria)

American goldfinch (Spinus tristis)

Swallows

Swallows intro

Barn swallow (Hirundo rustica)

American cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota)

Purple martin (Progne subis)

Sand martin (Riparia riparia)

Northern rough-winged swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis)

Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor)

Violet-green swallow (Tachycineta thalassina)

Blackbirds and allies

Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus)

Tricolored blackbird (Agelaius tricolor)

Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus)

Rusty blackbird (Euphagus carolinus)

Brewer’s blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus)

Bullock’s oriole (Icterus bullockii)

Hooded oriole (Icterus cucullatus)

Baltimore oriole (Icterus galbula)

Scott’s oriole (Icterus parisorum)

Streak-backed oriole (Icterus pustulatus)

Orchard oriole (Icterus spurius)

Bronzed cowbird (Molothrus aeneus)

Brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater)

Great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus)

Common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula)

Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta)

Yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus)

Shrikes

Brown shrike (Lanius cristatus)

Great gray shrike (Lanius excubitor)

Loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludovicianus)

Lanceolated warbler (Locustella lanceolata)

Thrashers and mockingbirds

Gray catbird (Dumetella carolinensis)

Northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)

Sage thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus)

Bendire’s thrasher (Toxostoma bendirei)

Crissal thrasher (Toxostoma crissale)

Curve-billed thrasher (Toxostoma curvirostre)

Le Conte’s thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei)

California thrasher (Toxostoma redivivum)

Brown thrasher (Toxostoma rufum)

Wagtails and pipits

Red-throated pipit (Anthus cervinus)

Olive-backed pipit (Anthus hodgsoni)

Buff-bellied pipit (Anthus rubescens)

Sprague’s pipit (Anthus spragueii)

White wagtail (Motacilla alba)

Gray wagtail (Motacilla cinerea)

Eastern yellow wagtail (Motacilla tschutschensis)

Flycatchers and allies

Taiga flycatcher (Ficedula albicilla)

Bluethroat (Luscinia svecica)

Northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe)

African stonechat (Saxicola torquata)

Red-flanked bluetail (Tarsiger cyanurus)

Chickadees and titmice

Oak titmouse (Baeolophus inornatus)

Juniper titmouse (Baeolophus ridgwayi)

Black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla)

Mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli)

Chestnut-backed chickadee (Poecile rufescens)

Wood-warblers

Canada warbler (Cardellina canadensis)

Wilson’s warbler (Cardellina pusilla)

Red-faced warbler (Cardellina rubrifrons)

Kentucky warbler (Geothlypis formosa)

Mourning warbler (Geothlypis philadelphia)

MacGillivray’s warbler (Geothlypis tolmiei)

Common yellowthroat (Geothlypis trichas)

Worm-eating warbler (Helmitheros vermivorus)

Yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens)

Black-and-white warbler (Mniotilta varia)

Painted whitestart (Myioborus pictus)

Connecticut warbler (Oporornis agilis)

Orange-crowned warbler (Oreothlypis celata)

Lucy’s warbler (Oreothlypis luciae)

Tennessee warbler (Oreothlypis peregrina)

Nashville warbler (Oreothlypis ruficapilla)

Virginia’s warbler (Oreothlypis virginiae)

Louisiana waterthrush (Parkesia motacilla)

Northern waterthrush (Parkesia noveboracensis)

Prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea)

Ovenbird (Seiurus aurocapilla)

Northern parula (Setophaga americana)

Black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens)

Bay-breasted warbler (Setophaga castanea)

Cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea)

Golden-cheeked warbler (Setophaga chrysoparia)

Hooded warbler (Setophaga citrina)

Yellow-rumped warbler (Setophaga coronata)

Prairie warbler (Setophaga discolor)

Yellow-throated warbler (Setophaga dominica)

Blackburnian warbler (Setophaga fusca)

Grace’s warbler (Setophaga graciae)

Magnolia warbler (Setophaga magnolia)

Black-throated gray warbler (Setophaga nigrescens)

Hermit warbler (Setophaga occidentalis)

Palm warbler (Setophaga palmarum)

Chestnut-sided warbler (Setophaga pensylvanica)

American yellow warbler (Setophaga petechia)

Pine warbler (Setophaga pinus)

American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla)

Blackpoll warbler (Setophaga striata)

Cape May warbler (Setophaga tigrina)

Townsend’s warbler (Setophaga townsendi)

Black-throated green warbler (Setophaga virens)

Golden-winged warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera)

Blue-winged warbler (Vermivora cyanoptera)

House sparrow (Passer domesticus)

Old World warblers

Arctic warbler (Phylloscopus borealis)

Dusky warbler (Phylloscopus fuscatus)

Gnatcatchers

Blue-gray gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea)

California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica)

Black-tailed gnatcatcher (Polioptila melanura)

Phainopepla (Phainopepla nitens)

Kinglets

Ruby-crowned kinglet (Regulus calendula)

Golden-crowned kinglet (Regulus satrapa)

Verdin (Auriparus flaviceps)

Nuthatches

Red-breasted nuthatch (Sitta canadensis)

White-breasted nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis)

Pygmy nuthatch (Sitta pygmaea)

Common starling (Sturnus vulgaris)

Wrentit (Chamaea fasciata)

Wrens

Cactus wren (Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus)

Canyon wren (Catherpes mexicanus)

Marsh wren (Cistothorus palustris)

Sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis)

Rock wren (Salpinctes obsoletus)

Bewick’s wren (Thryomanes bewickii)

House wren (Troglodytes aedon)

Winter wren (Troglodytes hiemalis)

Pacific wren (Troglodytes pacificus)

Thrushes

Veery (Catharus fuscescens)

Hermit thrush (Catharus guttatus)

Gray-cheeked thrush (Catharus minimus)

Swainson’s thrush (Catharus ustulatus)

Wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina)

Varied thrush (Ixoreus naevius)

Townsend’s solitaire (Myadestes townsendi)

Mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides)

Western bluebird (Sialia mexicana)

American robin (Turdus migratorius)

Eyebrowed thrush (Turdus obscurus)

Rufous-backed thrush (Turdus rufopalliatus)

Tyrant flycatchers

Olive-sided flycatcher (Contopus cooperi)

Greater pewee (Contopus pertinax)

Western wood pewee (Contopus sordidulus)

Eastern wood pewee (Contopus virens)

Alder flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum)

Pacific-slope flycatcher (Empidonax difficilis)

Yellow-bellied flycatcher (Empidonax flaviventris)

Hammond’s flycatcher (Empidonax hammondii)

Least flycatcher (Empidonax minimus)

American dusky flycatcher (Empidonax oberholseri)

Cordilleran flycatcher (Empidonax occidentalis)

Willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii)

Gray flycatcher (Empidonax wrightii)

Ash-throated flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens)

Great crested flycatcher (Myiarchus crinitus)

Nutting’s flycatcher (Myiarchus nuttingi)

Dusky-capped flycatcher (Myiarchus tuberculifer)

Brown-crested flycatcher (Myiarchus tyrannulus)

Sulphur-bellied flycatcher (Myiodynastes luteiventris)

Vermilion flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus)

Black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans)

Eastern phoebe (Sayornis phoebe)

Say’s phoebe (Sayornis saya)

Couch’s kingbird (Tyrannus couchii)

Thick-billed kingbird (Tyrannus crassirostris)

Scissor-tailed flycatcher (Tyrannus forficatus)

Tropical kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus)

Fork-tailed flycatcher (Tyrannus savana)

Eastern kingbird (Tyrannus tyrannus)

Western kingbird (Tyrannus verticalis)

Cassin’s kingbird (Tyrannus vociferans)

Vireos

Bell’s vireo (Vireo bellii)

Cassin’s vireo (Vireo cassinii)

Yellow-throated vireo (Vireo flavifrons)

Yellow-green vireo (Vireo flavoviridis)

Warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus)

White-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus)

Hutton’s vireo (Vireo huttoni)

Red-eyed vireo (Vireo olivaceus)

Philadelphia vireo (Vireo philadelphicus)

Plumbeous vireo (Vireo plumbeus)

Blue-headed vireo (Vireo solitarius)

Gray vireo (Vireo vicinior)

Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga)

Herons

Herons intro

Great egret (Ardea alba)

Great blue heron (Ardea herodias)

American bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus)

Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis)

Green heron (Butorides virescens)

Little blue heron (Egretta caerulea)

Reddish egret (Egretta rufescens)

Snowy egret (Egretta thula)

Tricolored heron (Egretta tricolor)

Least bittern (Ixobrychus exilis)

Yellow-crowned night heron (Nyctanassa violacea)

Black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)

Frigatebirds

Magnificent frigatebird (Fregata magnificens)

Great frigatebird (Fregata minor)

Pelicans

American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos)

Brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis)

Tropicbirds

Red-billed tropicbird (Phaethon aethereus)

White-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus)

Red-tailed tropicbird (Phaethon rubricauda)

Cormorants

Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus)

Neotropic cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus)

Pelagic cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus)

Brandt’s cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus)

Gannets and boobies

Masked booby (Sula dactylatra)

Brown booby (Sula leucogaster)

Blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii)

Red-footed booby (Sula sula)

Ibises and spoonbills

American white ibis (Eudocimus albus)

Roseate spoonbill (Platalea ajaja)

White-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi)

Glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus)

Woodpeckers

Northern flicker (Colaptes auratus)

Gilded flicker (Colaptes chrysoides)

Pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus)

Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus)

Acorn woodpecker (Melanerpes formicivorus)

Lewis’s woodpecker (Melanerpes lewis)

Gila woodpecker (Melanerpes uropygialis)

White-headed woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus)

Black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus)

Nuttall’s woodpecker (Picoides nuttallii)

Downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens)

Ladder-backed woodpecker (Picoides scalaris)

Hairy woodpecker (Picoides villosus)

Red-naped sapsucker (Sphyrapicus nuchalis)

Red-breasted sapsucker (Sphyrapicus ruber)

Williamson’s sapsucker (Sphyrapicus thyroideus)

Yellow-bellied sapsucker (Sphyrapicus varius)

Grebes

Clark’s grebe (Aechmorphorus clarkii)

Western grebe (Aechmorphorus occidentalis)

Horned grebe (Podiceps auritus)

Red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisegena)

Black-necked grebe (Podiceps nigricollis)

Pied-billed grebe (Podilymbus podiceps)

Least grebe (Tachybaptus dominicus)

Albatrosses and allies

Wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans)

Short-tailed albatross (Phoebastria albatrus)

Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis)

Black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes)

Light-mantled albatross (Phoebetria palpebrata)

Shy albatross (Thalassarche cauta)

Wilson’s storm petrel (Oceanites oceanicus)

Fork-tailed storm petrel (Oceanodroma furcata)

Ashy storm petrel (Oceanodroma homochroa)

Hornby’s storm petrel (Oceanodroma hornbyi)

Leach’s storm petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa)

Wedge-rumped storm petrel (Oceanodroma tethys)

Bulwer’s petrel (Bulweria bulwerii)

Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea)

Streaked shearwater (Calonectris leucomelas)

Northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis)

Black petrel (Procellaria parkinsoni)

Cook’s petrel (Pterodroma cookii)

Mottled petrel (Pterodroma inexpectata)

Great-winged petrel (Pterodroma macroptera)

Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia)

Murphy’s petrel (Pterodroma ultima)

Buller’s shearwater (Puffinus bulleri)

Flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes)

Pink-footed shearwater (Puffinus creatopus)

Great shearwater (Puffinus gravis)

Sooty shearwater (Puffinus griseus)

Black-vented shearwater (Puffinus opisthomelas)

Wedge-tailed shearwater (Puffinus pacificus)

Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus)

Short-tailed shearwater (Puffinus tenuirostris)

Parrots

Blue-fronted amazon (Amazona Aestiva)

White-fronted amazon (Amazona Albifrons)

Red-lored amazon (Amazona Autumnalus)

Lilac-crowned amazon (Amazona Finischi)

Yellow-headed amazon (Amazona Oratrix)

Red-crowned amazon (Amazona viridigenalis)

Yellow-chevroned parakeet (Brotogeris Chiriri)

White-winged parakeet (Brotogeris Versicolurus)

Nanday parakeet (Nandayus Nenday)

Red-masked parakeet (Psittacara Erythrogenus)

Mitred parakeet (Pssitacara Mitrata)

Rose-ringed parakeet (Pssittacula Krameri)

Blue-crowned parakeet (Thectocercus Acuticaudatus)

Owls

Owls intro

Northern saw-whet owl (Aegolius acadicus)

Short-eared owl (Asio flammeus)

Long-eared owl (Asio otus)

Burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia)

Snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus)

Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus)

Northern pygmy owl (Glaucidium gnoma)

Western screech owl (Megascops kennicottii)

Elf owl (Micrathene whitneyi)

Flammulated owl (Psiloscops flammeolus)

Great gray owl (Strix nebulosa)

Spotted owl (Strix occidentalis)

Barred owl (Strix varia)

Barn owl (Tyto alba)

Mammals

Mammals intro

Even-toed ungulates

Hoofed mammals intro

Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana)

Bovids

Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia)

Bison (Bison bison)

Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

Deer

Tule elk (Cervus canadensis nannodes)

Red deer (Cervus elaphus)

Fallow deer (Dama dama)

Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus)

Wild boar (Sus scrofa)

Whales and dolphins

Baleen whales

Baleen whales intro

North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica)

Common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)

Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis)

Bryde’s whale (Balaenoptera brydei)

Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus)

Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)

Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae)

Gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus)

Toothed whales

Toothed whales intro

Risso’s dolphin (Grampus griseus)

Long-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus capensis)

Short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)

Short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus)

Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens)

Northern right whale dolphin (Lissodelphis borealis)

Killer whale (Orcinus orca)

False killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens)

Pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata)

Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)

Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis)

Common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

Harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)

Dall’s porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli)

Dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima)

Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)

Blainville’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris)

Shrews and moles

Crawford’s gray shrew (Notiosorex crawfordi)

Ornate shrew (Sorex ornatus)

American shrew mole (Neurotrichus gibbsii)

Broad-footed mole (Scapanus latimanus)

Hares, rabbits, and pikas

Pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis)

Snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus)

Black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus)

White-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus townsendii)

European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

Desert cottontail (Sylvilagus audubonii)

Brush rabbit (Sylvilagus bachmani)

Mountain cottontail (Sylvilagus nuttallii)

American pika (Ochotona princeps)

Rodents

Rodents intro

Beavers

North American beaver (Castor canadensis)

Voles and allies

Western red-backed vole (Clethrionomys californicus)

California vole (Microtus californicus)

Long-tailed vole (Microtus longicaudus)

Townsend’s vole (Microtus townsendii)

White-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula)

Bushy-tailed woodrat (Neotoma cinerea)

Dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes)

Desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida)

Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus)

Northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster)

California mouse (Peromyscus californicus)

Cactus mouse (Peromyscus eremicus)

Deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus)

Pinyon mouse (Peromyscus truei)

Western harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys megalotis)

Salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris)

Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus)

Jumping mice

Western jumping mouse (Zapus princeps)

Pacific jumping mouse (Zapus trinotatus)

North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum)

Gophers

Botta’s pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae)

Mazama pocket gopher (Thomomys mazama)

Mountain pocket gopher (Thomomys monticola)

Northern pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides)

Kangaroo mice and allies

Bailey’s pocket mouse (Chaetodipus baileyi)

Desert pocket mouse (Chaetodipus penicillatus)

Spiny pocket mouse (Chaetodipus spinatus)

Desert kangaroo rat (Dipodomys deserti)

Giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens)

Merriam’s kangaroo rat (Dipodomys merriami)

Chisel-toothed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys microps)

Fresno kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides)

Ord’s kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii)

Narrow-faced kangaroo rat (Dipodomys venustus)

Pale kangaroo mouse (Microdipodops pallidus)

Little pocket mouse (Perognathus longimembris)

Mice and rats

House mouse (Mus musculus)

Brown rat (Rattus norvegicus)

Black rat (Rattus rattus)

Squirrels

White-tailed antelope squirrel (Ammospermophilus leucurus)

San Joaquin antelope squirrel (Ammospermophilus nelsoni)

Northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus)

Yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris)

Merriam’s chipmunk (Neotamias merriami)

California ground squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi)

Eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)

Western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus)

Fox squirrel (Sciurus niger)

Belding’s ground squirrel (Spermophilus beldingi)

Golden-mantled ground squirrel (Spermophilus lateralis)

Round-tailed ground squirrel (Spermophilus tereticaudus)

Townsend’s ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendii)

Rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegatus)

Yellow-pine chipmunk (Tamias amoenus)

Least chipmunk (Tamias minimus)

California chipmunk (Tamias obscurus)

Long-eared chipmunk (Tamias quadrimaculatus)

Allen’s chipmunk (Tamias senex)

Lodgepole chipmunk (Tamias speciosus)

Uinta chipmunk (Tamias umbrinus)

Douglas squirrel (Tamiasciurus douglasii)

Bats

Bats intro

Free-tailed bats

Western mastiff bat (Eumops perotis)

Pocketed free-tailed bat (Nyctinomops femorosaccus)

Big free-tailed bat (Nyctinomops macrotis)

Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis)

New World leaf-nosed bats

Mexican long-tongued bat (Choeronycteris mexicana)

Southern long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris curasoae)

Lesser long-nosed bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae)

California leaf-nosed bat (Macrotus californicus)

Common bats

Pallid bat (Antrozous pallidus)

Townsend’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii)

Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)

Spotted bat (Euderma maculatum)

Silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans)

Desert red bat (Lasiurus blossevillii)

Hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus)

California myotis (Myotis californicus)

Western small-footed bat (Myotis ciliolabrum)

Long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis)

Little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus)

Fringed myotis (Myotis thysanodes)

Cave myotis (Myotis velifer)

Long-legged myotis (Myotis volans)

Yuma myotis (Myotis yumanensis)

Western pipistrelle (Parastrellus hesperus)

Carnivorans

Carnivorans intro

Canines

Coyote (Canis latrans)

Gray wolf (Canis lupus)

Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)

Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)

Island fox (Urocyon littoralis)

Kit fox (Vulpes macrotis)

Red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

Felines

Feral cat (Felis catus)

Bobcat (Lynx rufus)

Jaguar (Panthera onca)

Cougar (Puma concolor)

Skunks

Striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis)

Western spotted skunk (Spilogale gracilis)

Otters and allies

Sea otter (Enhydra lutris)

Wolverine (Gulo Gulo)

North American river otter (Lontra canadensis)

American marten (Martes americana)

Fisher (Martes pennanti)

Stoat (Mustela erminea)

Long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata)

American mink (Neovison vison)

American badger (Taxidea taxus)

Seals

Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephalus townsendi)

Northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus)

Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus)

California sea lion (Zalophus californianus)

Northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris)

Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina)

Raccoons and allies

Ring-tailed cat (Bassariscus astutus)

Raccoon (Procyon lotor)

Bears

American black bear (Ursus americanus)

Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos californicus)

Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)

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